Tag Archives: Bible

So you’ve read all the other “Leadership Bible Study” studies.  You’ve learned how to read the Bible, how to pray in public, how to plan a study on any topic, and how to mentor people and handle problems.  Now, Bible Study, Leadershipyou have to put it all together.  This study is designed to show you how to get the information and how to put it together.  This study is on Revelation, which is probably one of the more difficult topics to lead a Bible study on.  If you can learn how to lead a study on the Book of Revelation, you should be ready for anything!

Study Guide 1 – Leader’s Guide

Letter to the Churches, Revelations chapters 1-3

Opening Monologue: The point of this study is more to help you understand how to read Revelation yourself; to show you the background of the symbolism and the major ways in which the book has been understood in the past.  Please note also that we won’t be making specific predictions in this class; so don’t expect this Bible Study Leader’s version of how the end times are going to play out.  People have been trying to see how the end times would go from this book for 1900 years, and so far no one’s gotten it right yet (in 1st century Rome, they thought the end times were around the corner, in 999 they thought that Christ was coming back, in 18th century Holland, they thought the end times were going to be next year, etc).

Four Ways:

There are four main ways of interpreting the book; we’re mostly going to just mention 3 of them and skip the 4th (because it’s not very popular at the moment in Protestant circles).  I’m going to give you the scholarly name for each way here, but I’m usually just going to refer to them by their main proponents since that’s easier to keep straight.

Modern/Liberal:  This view, originating in 18th century Germany, holds that the book of Revelation primarily refers to the political situation of its day and should not be used to predict the future, although it is still a wonderful testimony to God’s love and care for his people in this view.  This is very popular in Protestant mainline, more liberal churches and seminaries.

Dispensational: Dispensationalism is a way of making sense of the Bible that relies heavily on an understanding of “church ages,” or dispensations, which affect how we should interpret the Bible (Footnote: for instance, was Jesus’ command to “be perfect as your Father in heaven is perfect” just for those before the age of grace, or does it apply equally to all people in every time? Some Dispensationalists would say no, that message was to those people in that time, but most other Protestants would seek an explanation that doesn’t get us off the hook.).  Dispensationalism is usually associated with extremely conservative groups, and authors like Tim LaHaye of the “Left Behind” series.  Concerning Revelations, Dispensationalists generally hold to a belief in the Rapture, a tendency to seek contemporary explanations of the book’s symbolism, and a belief in the immanent return of Christ.

Historist view: This view holds that the book of Revelation has been slowly but progressively fulfilled throughout history.  In this view, Hitler might be one beast, and a future Anti-Christ another.  Interpreters look throughout history for various fulfillments.  This view was popular for so long among Protestants that it was even called “the Protestant view” at one point.  However this view is more commonly held by the Catholic Church today, which holds that many of the prophecies in the book are being worked out through the True Church, ie, the Roman Catholic one.  We won’t be studying this one much since the Dispensational view has pretty much supplanted it as the popular Protestant view.

Reformation:  This refers to classic Reformed Theology and its main proponents, men like Luther, Leadership Bible Study,Bible, Bible StudyCalvin, Zwingli, et al.  The book of Revelation played a much larger role in the formation of Protestantism than most people realize (even though Luther wanted to exclude it form the Bible and Calvin died before finishing his commentary on the book).  Just about everyone who’s not Catholic or Eastern Othodox is a Protestant, whether you know you are or not, so this should be helpful in understanding our own views. The Reformers and their followers tend to spiritualize the symbolism in Revelation to make it relevant to the church of their day, and are more likely to see doctrinal issues than is popular now


Really, whatever your view, you’re going to read it into everything in the book.  The bad thing about symbolism is that you can more or less get it to mean what you want it to mean if you’re willing to be a little selective.  Therefore, I don’t want to get too bogged down in the meaning of the symbols, but rather give you a framework for understanding their origin and some of the most important interpretations.

Read vv. 1-3

According to v. 1, who is the book written for?  v. 1, the servants of Jesus Christ.  Is that you? According to v. 3, what does it promise?  v. 3, a blessing to those who read and obey.

As hard to understand as it can be, this book is addressed to us and there is a special promise of blessing attached to reading it.  Is this book written to just the wise?  Just to those with seminary degrees?  Just to those with special knowledge or years of experience?  Who then can expect to receive the blessing this book promises?  One of the nice things about studying Revelation is that even really wise people don’t really understand much more than you do for sure ;).

Read v. 1 again.  Who’s this book about?  John wrote it down, but it’s called “the revelation of Jesus Christ” so this is His book even if John did the writing, right?  It’s His story, His “revelation.”

History of Interpretation:

Let’s look at another phrase from verse 1 as an example of those different ways of reading this book I mentioned at the beginning of the class: “things which must shortly take place.”

Let’s take a look at a few different translations:

NRS Revelation 1:1 The revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave him to show his servants what must soon take place

YLT Revelation 1:1 A revelation of Jesus Christ, that God gave to him, to show to his servants what things it behoveth to come to pass quickly;

NAS Revelation 1:1 The Revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave Him to show to His bond-servants, the things which must shortly take place;

What do you think this phrase, “must soon take place,” means?

Modern:  Obviously if you think that Revelation refers mostly to events that happened in the past, you’re going to be really happy about this verse.  Modern/liberal folks might say that this refers to events that were about to happen in short order in John’s day, either the fall of Jerusalem or Rome, depending on when you think the book was written.  This actually makes more sense than some Dispensational views, since obviously these words were originally written to Christians of the late first century, not to the present day church.  It makes more sense that Jesus is showing John things which must take place in the next 15 years and calling that shortly than it does to assume he said “shortly” but meant 2000 years or more later.

Dispensational:  Again, obviously if you think that the end times are just around the corner, you read this and say “ah ha, I knew it!”  Of course most serious dispensational scholars are aware of the difficulties outlined above, and would therefore point out that the word translated here as “shortly” can also mean “quickly” or “suddenly.”  So Jesus could be referring to events that are going to take place in a relatively short period of time instead of ones that will happen soon.  Most dispensationalist theologians would put this time at around 7 years (time, times, and half a time, or 3 and ½ years, times two).  This runs afoul of v. 3, however, which states, “the time is near.”

Reformed:  The classic Reformed position on this dilemma is that in a sense the time is always near.  Since there is application for the entire church in this book, it’s true in some sense for every age of the church that “the time is near.”  There’s always a crisis or the risk of judgment for us, and yet always a Word from the Lord of concern.

Read vv4-8.

NLT Revelation 1:4 This letter is from John to the seven churches in the province of Asia. Grace and peace to you from the one who is, who always was, and who is still to come; from the sevenfold Spirit before his throne;

NIV Revelation 1:4 John, To the seven churches in the province of Asia: Grace and peace to you from him who is, and who was, and who is to come, and from the seven spirits before his throne,

Who sends their grace and peace in v 4?  What on earth does that mean?  Let’s read Is. 11:1-2


NRS Isaiah 11:1-2 A shoot shall come out from the stump of Jesse, and a branch shall grow out of his roots.  2 The spirit of the LORD shall rest on him, the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit of counsel and might, the spirit of knowledge and the fear of the LORD.

How many spirits does this verse mention? (7) Who are they resting on?  The “Root of Jesse”, aka Jesus.

What does this tell us about the passage we are reading?  There are a lot of different directions to go here depending on what you want to teach.  Besides telling us about the character of Christ, (and therefore of mature Christians) this also reveals to us for the first time an interpretive key to the book of revelation.  We think of Rev as being the most “NT” of the NT books, because it’s far out.  In actual fact, no other NT book is as rooted in the OT’s imagery and references.

One thing I should probably note: there are tons of questions I’m not asking, mostly because they don’t fit with what I’m trying to present.  Because this is a complex book, there just isn’t time to cover it all, so I had to make choices.

Read 9-20

Who was the one who spoke to John (v. 13)?  The Son of Man.

What significance does that phrase have?  Who is this, and what does this say about him?  What does that mean for us?

Daniel 7:9   “As I looked, “thrones were set in place, and the Ancient of Days took his seat. His clothing was as white as snow; the hair of his head was white like wool. His throne was flaming with fire, and its wheels were all ablaze.

Daniel 7:13-14  13 “In my vision at night I looked, and there before me was one like a son of man, coming with the clouds of heaven. He approached the Ancient of Days and was led into his presence.  14 He was given authority, glory and sovereign power; all peoples, nations and men of every language worshiped him. His dominion is an everlasting dominion that will not pass away, and his kingdom is one that will never be destroyed.

What do you think the significance of the “double edged sword” is? (v. 16)  What does that tell us about what we’re about to read?

Hebrews 4:12  12 Indeed, the word of God is living and active, sharper than any two-edged sword, piercing until it divides soul from spirit, joints from marrow; it is able to judge the thoughts and intentions of the heart.

What do you think this means: I have the keys of Death and of Hades? (v 18)  What does it mean to have the key to something?  If you have the key to your car, what does that mean?  You have control over it, right?

What does this mean for us? We’re set.

Discussion point: expect symbolism.  How much of the first chapter is symbolic and how much is literal?  (literal in the sense that it refers to a specific future event, etc)  You’ll notice that we’re not even past the first chapter, and yet we’ve already encountered plenty of symbolism and colorful imagery.  What do you think that this says about what we can expect in the rest of the book?  (so don’t take things too literally). Presbyterian Church, Hyde park also arranging effective and heart touching bible studies at a regular time interval.


Part of the challenge of leading a Bible study is learning how to read the Bible, preparing the material, and feeling comfortable praying in public.  However, dealing with the participants of a Bible study can be an Leadership Bible Studyentirely different, but equally difficult, part of the equation.  We have all been in Bible studies as I am also in St. Petersberg Woodlawn Presbyterian Church bible studies where the main thing that we remember is the actions or statements of the people in the group instead of the leader.  The person who monopolizes the conversation¸ who takes the group off topic time and again with questions or anecdotes , or who expresses a view of the Bible that does not agree with our faith tradition can be quite challenging for the Bible study leader.  And while it’s wonderful to have a new Christian or someone who is exploring the faith  in your group, that definitely increases the stress level of the leader!  The following Bible study gives you some great ideas of how to deal with the people part of the Bible study.


Intro: Over the past few sessions we’ve talked in detail about the different ways of preparing a Bible Study, as well as what tools to use to make life easier while you do prepare.  The reason we’ve spent so much time in these areas is that the Biblical side is very important to get right, and for some it’s the most intimidating part of leading a study.  However, it’s not the only aspect of having a successful Bible study.  In fact, it’s probably not too far over 50%.  The social aspects of leading a study are also vital for the growth of the people in the study.

The purpose of leading a Bible study is to help people grow in their faith.  This ultimate goal is achieved not just through studying the Bible, but though the formation of relationships in the small group and the conversations that take place there.  There are many problems that can pop up to derail this process or the process of the actual Bible study, and there are many “little things” that help tremendously that may not be intuitive for everyone to do.  We’re going to talk about both how to best encourage positive social interactions as well as how to handle problems when they crop up in this lesson.

Encouraging Positive Social Interactions

First, I think it’s important to know what you can be doing to encourage people to talk during the group time and to form friendships in a small group.  The extent to which you can do this depends on several factors, notably the length of the study, the type of study and the subject matter.  Much of this is stuff that we’ve already talked about, but there are a few other things to cover that may or may not be common sense.

In a short term study, realistically, there’s only so much of this that you can do.  It more or less is taking time to answer questions (or let others in the group answer questions) that come up during the bible study, sending them reminders and praying for them.  In a longer term study, there’s more that you can do, but it boils down to shepherding them.  Activities that promote positive social interactions include:

Send Email Reminders

It’s a very good idea to check in with the group members during the week, either with a short phone call reminding them of the study and saying hi, or an email or text.  This keeps folks connected to the study and also gives people extra motivation to come.  Obviously calling is best, but realistically email is easiest.

Pray for Everyone

We talked about this in an earlier session, but it helps quite a bit if you pray for everyone in your group, individually, once a week.

Start with Social Time or a Game

Starting with a check in time, whether formal or informal, is a good way to loosen people up and also help them feel connected to the group.  Other good ways to get people comfortable are with a game or icebreaker exercise.  You can find a ton of these online at youth pastor sites.

Moderating the Conversation

It’s important to correctly control the flow of the conversation.  Usually this isn’t a problem; you just let others do most of the talking and interject when needed.  However, sometimes this means politely cutting off people who are going on too long, keeping the study moving forward so that you can get to the application parts, or encouraging everyone to participate.

In general, the more other people are doing the talking in a Bible study, the better you are doing your job.  What I mean is, the more good, productive, edifying conversation that is going on, the better you’re doing.  So view your role as a conversation starter and moderator; you don’t have to anchor the whole thing or answer every question.  The lecture format works well in a class of 15 to 20, but in a smaller group, it makes more sense to encourage others to talk than to do the talking yourself (unless it’s a training group or one that requires a lot of set up by the leader).

Let People Ask Questions

One of the main advantages to a Bible study over a lecture style of teaching is that people get to ask questions, and work out things in real time.  If they were listening to a sermon and didn’t get a point, then tough luck, but in a Bible study, people have the option of asking questions if they don’t understand or if they disagree.  For the purposes of personal growth, this is huge.  You can work out things about faith that just won’t be worked out in other ways.

The implication of this is that occasionally, people are going to ask questions.  So long as they’re honest and not disruptive or too distracting, you should let them.  Sometimes rabbit trails can be beneficial.  Remember what the real point of the Bible study is, to help others grow in their faith.  It’s ok if you don’t finish everything you prepared; God might have other plans than you do!

Extra Attention

If you see someone struggling with something or can tell that they need extra attention, it’s entirely appropriate to ask them to lunch or to talk to them after the study.  Again, keep the goal in mind, to help others grow.  This also applies when folks obviously need a little extra attention, say if they’re injured or if a family member is in the hospital.

Extra-curricular Activities

Encourage folks to do things outside of the group with each other.  If folks are becoming closer friends outside of the study, then chances are good that the study itself will be more productive and meaningful.  An easy way to do this is to appoint a social coordinator for the group, or if that’s not something the group is ready for, just remember that there are certain events that can be celebrated together, like a 1 year anniversary or someone getting a new job, etc.

How to Overcome Problems:

Another topic that I’m sure everyone would be interested in is how to overcome the various problems that we’re faced with in the course of leading a Bible study.  We’re going to look at the 3 most common problems today: silence after asking a question, avoiding rabbit trails, and problem personalities.

How to Avoid Silence

First, I want to say that silence after you ask a question is not always bad.  Sometimes it’s good for people to think about something for a little bit before answering.  That’s ok.  After a certain amount of time, however, it gets awkward, and you need to know how to deal with it.

The first strategy I’d use is good planning.  If you’ve loosened folks up with a check in time and with some softball “observation” type questions, chances are they’ll be willing to share their insights.  Sometimes, though, if it’s a hard question, people may have a tough time responding even if they’re warmed up.  If you think that this might be the case with one of your questions, what you should do (assuming you can’t reword the question) is prepare a back up question or two that you can ask following this question if there’s nothing but blank stares.

Here’s what I mean: Let’s say that you ask your group, “What do you think Paul means when he says, “why then are people baptized for the dead?””  That’s going to elicit some blank stares, more than likely (since we don’t know what he meant ), so you might have some questions prepared that help break the harder question down, for instance, “Do you think that he was trying to argue for the idea that the Resurrection had already taken place, or against it?”

Another tactic is to include the answer to your question, or a hint to it, in the question itself.  For instance, if the answer to your question is in verse 12, let people know that.  It’s not a test, we’re trying to help people think through and come to the conclusions themselves.  Another example of this is to make the question a leading question; “What do you think Paul’s exasperation with the Galatians is leading him to this conclusion?”

How to Avoid Rabbit Trails:

On the other hand, sometimes the problem is the opposite: instead of silence, you get a group who wants to talk too much about something that just isn’t the most productive thing to talk about.  This isn’t uncommon with controversial subjects or certain personalities.  But what do you do about them?  How do you politely escape?

Usually you can just halt the conversation by saying, “Guys, I think we’re off topic.  Let’s try to stay focused on what the text says,” or something similar.  Sometimes a rabbit trail will just peter out on its own if you leave it alone for a little while, and often it’s best to either nip it in the bud immediately or just let it go for a minute or two to see if it’s profitable or not.  Rabbit trails that are a distraction from the Lord or that in your opinion aren’t worthwhile should be stopped though.  Usually many of the people in the group would like to get back to the topic at hand, not just you.

Another popular form of rabbit trails is being asked a question you don’t know the answer to and taking the bait.  This is one of the most anxiety producing problems that a small group leader faces: What if I’m asked a question in my study that I don’t know the answer to?  Not necessarily about the material that you’re planning to cover, because obviously you can prepare for that, but one of the big ones, like “Why does a good God allow evil and suffering?” or “What about miracles?”  It’s usually better to say, “I don’t know” or throw it back to the group.  You can also just give it your best shot (while being upfront about not being sure) or pass it off to a pastor.

Handling Different Personalities in a Small Group Setting

Being 100% honest with you, the biggest problem that you are likely to face in your small group is going to be the personalities involved.  There are certain personality types that can make leading your group quite a challenge.  Then there are other folks that aren’t so much of a problem as they are folks who need to be treated a little differently.

“talky” folks

I know you’re all scared of silence, but the most difficult to deal with folks are the ones who don’t know how to be quiet.  You guys all know people like this, I’m going to assume.  Certain personality types just never let anyone else get a word in edgewise.  This is poison for a group, because if left unchecked this will cause frustration and resentment.  Folks will simply stop coming rather than deal with this individual.

How do you handle someone who talks too much?  How do you keep the group from being frustrated with them while at the same time keep them from feeling stifled or insulted?  This can be quite a challenge, but it’s doable.  I don’t necessarily recommend directly commenting on their lack of basic social mores; folks with this problem are frequently unaware of it and may be deeply offended by a conversation like this (not that they don’t need someone in their life to tell them this).  (obviously folks like this are frequently socially unaware in general, although sweet folks)

The better way to handle this situation is to learn to cut in on them when they’re taking a breath ;).  I’m only half joking; the best way to deal with these folks is to cut in and restate what they said or cut in, thank them for their opinion and ask the rest of the group for theirs.  In other words, this requires keeping a reign on the person’s tongue for them.

Quiet Folks

Waaay on the other side of the spectrum is the person who needs to be drawn out of their shell.  In any group, you’re likely to have one or two who don’t interact as much or who prefer to listen.  This isn’t necessarily bad; it doesn’t mean that they aren’t learning something or getting things out of the lesson, but if it’s because they’re uncomfortable or disengaged, then you need to do something to draw them out.

There are a few ways to draw someone out.  First, you can just ask them a question.  “X, you look like you’ve got an opinion; what do you think?”  Second, these are folks that you can talk to after the class.  Sometimes there’s a reason they’re being quiet, and sometimes they just need a little longer to warm up than other folks.  “I notice you haven’t been speaking up much; is everything ok?”


Next week we’re going to go through a sample Bible study, and hopefully bring all of the things we’ve learned about over the past few weeks together.  I’ll probably have us cover the first chapter of Revelation or perhaps a topical study.  Any preferences?

Have you been teaching a Bible study for years?  Are you ready for a break, but no one is willing to replace Leadership Bible Study: How to Read the Bibleyou?  I know many people feel like they’re stuck leading the same group they have been leading for years, even though they really need a year or two off, because no one will agree to teach the class/group.  However, if you haven’t trained other members so that they feel comfortable leading a Bible study, the answer is probably going to continue to be no.

Instead, you need to try a different approach.  Offer a Bible study leadership group, or simply use this and the following few studies in your regular Bible study group like Danville First Presbyterian Church.  Invite everyone to come, without any obligation to teach a group.  Once you’ve trained people on the basics of how to lead a Bible study group, they’ll realize it’s not so scary…and hopefully say yes.  Here’s the first study in the series—how to read the Bible.


Intro, what we’re trying to accomplish, what our goal is. 

  • Learning to read the Bible as well as possible and to be prepared for a Bible Study
  • The ultimate goal of this course is for you to be able to do a Bible Study on any topic and do it well.  This includes taking care of the people you’re teaching and learning to lead, pray for those you’re teaching, and handle problem people.
  • It would be awesome if at the end of this series any of you wanted to start a bible study.  (I should also let you know that I’m going to be recording it for those who couldn’t make it and for future leaders).
  • Where do you guys think you are?  What would you like to get out of it?

How to read the Bible better:
1, Best strategies:
Context: A text without a context is a pretext.  In other words, if you don’t have at least some idea of what’s going on, you’re almost certain to misinterpret; like overhearing part of a conversation, you just don’t know what’s going on without the context, and any conclusions you draw from it are suspect.

Reading for genre: Another important thing to note about reading the Bible is that it’s not just one book, but 66 of them.  This means that some of them are written with vastly different purposes in mind, and to some extent this needs to be taken into account when we read the Bible.  After all, you don’t read history the same way you do fiction, right?  In the same way, the historical Gospel accounts should be read differently than the poetry of the Psalms, or the (frequently conditional) prophecies of the OT.

Using the Bible to interpret the Bible: A final strategy that is very important is using the Scripture to interpret the Scripture.  Basically what this implies is that any particular verse you’re studying doesn’t exist in a vacuum, and even though it may seem to say getting vengeance on your enemies is AOK, we know from the rest of the Bible that, well, you’re wrong about that.

Shellfish example: Paul where he talks about the law no longer applying to us as Christians (Gal 5:18)…  thus exposing the fairly annoying arguments about how hypocritical Christians are to apply the Bible in sexual ethics but not in the eating of shellfish.

Mistakes to avoid:
Reading present culture into past circumstances: example, in Gal 4, “son” isn’t a sexist term, but quite the opposite, a sign that “in Christ there is no male or female”.  Only sons got an inheritance, you see.
Misunderstanding idioms (gaze on their nakedness, uncover the feet – Ham, Ruth)

How to prepare for a Bible Study:
We’ll talk about how to select a text later, and for now just focus on how to prepare once already know what you’re studying.  Obviously, pray for the Holy Spirit’s help in understanding the text before you get started.  He’s the author (by inspiration) of the Bible, so presumably he’s in a good position to help you understand it.

Get the Context Locked Down
First, be sure to read up on the context of the text.  Most good study Bibles will have an intro to a book that will give you a good idea of the particular author’s intentions or what was going on in the community at the time of the writing.  It’s important to have some familiarity with this to guide you in writing your questions and allow you to help yourself and your folks from making mistakes about the meaning of the text.  Knowing the context is going to help inform every angle of your understanding of the text.

Second, if you’re studying a single chapter, read the chapter before and the chapter after your text.  What I mean is read through 3 chapters at once to get a good feel for the whole picture of what is going on.  Even if you’re studying a particular Gospel parable for instance, this is still useful, as these things often go in groups (3 parables in a row about heaven, one random one about something else, then another parable about heaven?  Maybe you should rethink the supposedly “random” one, for example.).

What we’re trying to do here is answer questions like, “Who is the audience?”  and “What is the major goal of the speaker/writer here?  What do they want?”  Once we have a handle on the big picture, we can go small.

Other translations:
Now that we’re ready to start digging deeper, the first thing to do is to read the text in multiple translations.  However, it’s really not enough to read the text in just any 2 or 3 translations.  It’s important to pick translations that are different enough to really get a sense of what’s going on with the different possible interpretations.

Different translations have different philosophies of how to translate.  They fall basically into 3 groups: 1st, the inflexible translation, that is pretty darn close to the Greek, but sometimes so much so that you get lost or misunderstand because they use artificial language for English.  The NASB and KJV are examples of this type.  2nd, the Functional Translations are Bibles like the TNIV and NRSV that try their best to replace Greek and Hebrew idioms with English ones, and are more focused on transmitting meaning than just the words.  3rd are the Paraphrases which are almost entirely focused on getting the meaning across in understandable ways, and isn’t very concerned about adding extra words that aren’t in the text or flat rewriting stuff.  These can be a good way to help you interpret what the text is saying and include translations like the TLB and the Message.

The translations I recommend are … TNIV, NRSV, NASB, TLB or Message.

Read the Footnotes:
This is sort of a footnote to reading other translations, but you definitely want to not skip the footnotes.  It’s important to know a couple of terms for this and what they mean (in other words, there are different kinds of footnotes).  Sometimes a footnote is just because the way it’s stated in Greek could be taken more than one way, for instance, Jesus’ reply to Pilot could either mean, “You said so” or “Yes, I am” (approx.).  That was probably deliberate wordplay, and either is acceptable.

The second type of footnote is when the original text is actually in question.  The way this works is that the Bible we have today isn’t just one book that’s been passed down exactly as it currently is for 2000 years, but a combination of all of the knowledge we have, including 1000s of complete and partial ancient manuscripts.  The OT is mainly based on something called the Masoretic Text, which dates from around the 11th century.  It’s a Jewish text copied and handed down for generations.  The older books were seen as less valuable, because the scribes were that confident in their ability to perfectly copy the text.  So when you see that term in a foot note, that’s what it’s referring to. Two other major translations we have of the OT are the Syriac and the Septuagint.  The Septuagint was the daily Bible of the people in the NT (those living outside of Palistine).  We have copies of it many hundreds of years older than that of the Masoretic, but its translation was somewhat spotty, done by 70 scholars, some of whom were more NLT, and some more NASB.  In cases where the Septuagint makes more sense or the Masoretic is missing information you’ll usually have a footnote saying that.

The third type of footnote is when something changed in the text over time.  Ex of Jesus saying, “Father, forgive them, they know not what they do.”  In these cases, the translators are simply making their best call as to what’s going on from the available evidence, but really, there’s a question about which way it might go.

The final type of footnote is quiet easy; usually referencing a related passage or quoted passage in the Bible. In the NT, you’ll note that frequently the quoted passage and the original passage don’t line up.  That’s because these passages are usually quoted from the common language OT of the day, the Sept.

Commentaries/wise friends:
In preparing for a Bible study, I would only use commentaries in some cases, not all.  Most of the time a good study Bible and your common sense will help considerably.  Sometimes a commentary can really illuminate what is going on, however, or shed light on some cultural idioms that are just difficult to grasp.  My general rule is that after 15 minutes of struggling with it, I still have no clue as to what’s going on, it’s to the commentaries I go.  Good free online commentaries: Calvin’s and IVP on Bible Gateway.

Writing Questions:
3 Questions:
The questions you ask, if they’re not provided for you, most easily follow these 3 steps.

First, what is going on in the story?  What does Jesus say to the lepers?  Who is Paul talking about when he says, “I wish they would emasculate themselves?”  These questions serve 2 purposes; they should be relatively easy to answer so you can “warm up” people and get them used to answering questions, but at the same time they should also set up your upcoming questions or make sure that everyone understands what’s going on if there’s something easy to miss you want them to see.  Closed ended questions are ok here.

Second, what is the meaning of the text in its context?  Why does Paul want someone to, um, harm themselves?  What’s the big deal?  What significance is there that the lepers who turned around to thank Jesus were Samaritans?  These questions are intended to get people to engage with the text on a more complex level, and should be open ended.  You’re of course setting up the final set of questions, the application questions.

Lastly, what do these texts, now that we understand them, mean for us today?  How should we treat How to Read The Bibleoutsiders?  How do we as church people treat God for all of his blessings?  Do we turn away and forget to thank him?  (for Paul) What are some ways that we rely on works over grace in modern days?  If trying to save yourself by works is worse than being maimed where it counts, what steps can we take to make sure that we’re relying solely on grace and not works for salvation?  These questions are where the real “meaty” discussions can take place, and it’s good to ask opinion questions, set up hypothetical scenarios, or just ask simple, open ended questions like, “What are the implications of that for our lives today?”

How to make it interesting:
As you develop questions, you’ll also want to consider keeping people awake ;).  Controversial or counterintuitive questions can result in lively discussions!

  • Look for things that are “common understandings” (eg, heaven is whatever you want it to be) that you can bust.  There are usually no shortage of these.
  • Look for apparent or true conflicts within the text.  Conflicts are inherently interesting.  (eg, Matt 7:1-6)

Look for places where you can teach something interesting learned in your research that helps to explain what’s going on from a cultural, historical, or contextual basis

What a difficult dilemma in modern society! Christians are surrounded by a very secular world, full of things To Judge or Not To Judge: A Bible Studythat they don’t approve of or agree with. At the same time, Christians have to balance seemly contradicting Biblical advice: “Judge not, lest ye be judged” and Jesus’ parable in Matthew 7 where he says: “For with the judgment you make you will be judged, and the measure you give will be the measure you get. Why do you see the speck in your neighbor’s eye, but do not notice the log in your own eye?” It’s a tricky situation. For some advice, and a way to share that advice in a Bible study you’re planning on teaching, check out the Bible study below and you can visit Port Richey Church for more insights on your Bible innovations:

Bible Study on Judging or Not Judging

Main ideas:

The Bible is more complex than we give it credit for in the conservative church sometimes.

Contradictions in the Bible are often, maybe usually, there deliberately to make you think. What do you think Jesus is trying to get us to think here?

There are two kinds of judging; one is the kind that we have to apply in everyday life, that is wrong or this is right, the other is the kind that sets us up in God’s place; this person is evil or not, this person is to be forgiven, or not. Someday we’ll be allowed that kind of judgment, but not for today; we simply don’t have all the information we will at that time.

We are to judge, in fact, called to and competent to in almost any matter, other than whether or not someone is a Christian. (raca is danger of hell) (judging that builds up is ”you sinned against me” or “this person is not a positive influence”, but judging that tears down is different somehow.) (only thing is, Christ very clearly is talking here of the rebuking sort of judgment, and telling us to be darn careful with it.)

So there are two mistakes we make with this verse: one, we tune out righteous rebuke that we so desperately need, and two, we fail to offer the correction our friends need to grow.

And what about those other places where Jesus tells us to rebuke our brothers and treat them like tax collectors? (note this is neighbor not brother)

I think it comes down to, there’s a time to judge and a time not to. When someone is doing something grossly outrageous that’s hurting the faith or hurting you directly, then it’s time to judge. If someone is being a fool, and being around them is going to harm you and they’re not the type to listen to instruction, then it’s time to disengage. To tell someone they’re sinning means to some degree we’re judging, but we’re commanded to do it.

If I had to simplify, then I’d say we’re to judge those inside the covenant community (we’re working under God’s rules) but only over the serious stuff, not the stuff we think is serious, but the stuff that the Bible does; eg, you’re green and your brother drives a hummer, let that one slide, but if you’re green and he mocks you for believing in global warming (or vice versa), then that should be pointed out to him for his health and yours. So what, he drives a hummer, to his own master he stands or falls. But if he sins against you, rebuke him. Those outside the community, I’m not sure we should judge at all.


You guys ever watch Montell Williams? Come on, you’re in a safe place, you can tell us. I’ve rarely seen shows like that except on parodies or in excepts, but one phrase I’ve seen in such shows is, “Don’t you judge me!” And I know you guys are familiar with “do not judge, lest ye be judged.” I’m sure that there are at least a few of us who have been tempted to quote that one in a similar fashion at one point or another in our lives.

Let’s look at the Bible verse underlying all of this stuff, Matt 7:1:

NRS Matthew 7:1 “Do not judge, so that you may not be judged.

What do you guys think about that? Are the folks on Montell right?

Does this say that if you want never to be judged for anything you do, that it’s possible so long as you never judge anyone else? (If so, that’s great news for sinners apart from Jesus’ death on the cross)

Is it saying that if you do judge, that your own judgment will be unavoidable? (but what about verses that say judgment is unavoidable?)

What is the context of this verse?

Matthew 7:2-6 2 For with the judgment you make you will be judged, and the measure you give will be the measure you get. 3 Why do you see the speck in your neighbor’s eye, but do not notice the log in your own eye? 4 Or how can you say to your neighbor, ‘Let me take the speck out of your eye,’ while the log is in your own eye? 5 You hypocrite, first take the log out of your own eye, and then you will see clearly to take the speck out of your neighbor’s eye. 6 “Do not give what is holy to dogs; and do not throw your pearls before swine, or they will trample them under foot and turn and maul you.

Q: What kind of judging is Jesus talking about here? (specks, nitpicky stuff)

Q: What’s up with verse 6? Is this part of the next segment? What do you think it means? Why does Jesus put this here? So we’re not supposed to judge, but calling people dogs and swine is ok?

Many contradictions are in the Bible on purpose

The easiest (and here most relevant) example is Proverbs

Proverbs 26:4 4 Do not answer fools according to their folly, or you will be a fool yourself.

Proverbs 26:5 5 Answer fools according to their folly, or they will be wise in their own eyes.

Q: do you think the author of these proverbs made a mistake? Do you think he wasn’t paying attention? Then what was his goal, do you think, in putting two contradictory statements so close together? (get you to think)

(side note; this shows 2 things; one that proverbs are not the iron clad spiritual laws of the universe that some would have us believe, but rather serve the purpose of making one wise, and two that modernists make one of two errors, liberalism or fundamentalism, missing the complexities entirely in their intra-cultural war)

Q: What do you think the purpose of this contradiction is? When is it OK or even necessary to judge, and when is it not? (covenant community it’s required to some degree, and it’s usually not appropriate to judge the world (job of HS, and different than warning)?)

Let’s look at what else the Bible has to say about judging others:

Matthew 18:15 15 “If another member of the church sins against you, go and point out the fault when the two of you are alone. If the member listens to you, you have regained that one.

Q: Can you tell someone else they’re sinning without judging?

James 4:11-12 11 Do not speak evil against one another, brothers and sisters. Whoever speaks evil against another or judges another, speaks evil against the law and judges the law; but if you judge the law, you are not a doer of the law but a judge. 12 There is one lawgiver and judge who is able to save and to destroy. So who, then, are you to judge your neighbor?

Q: What does this say about judging? What sort of judging is James talking about as “bad” here?

Romans 2:1-3 NRS Therefore you have no excuse, whoever you are, when you judge others; for in passing judgment on another you condemn yourself, because you, the judge, are doing the very same things. 2 You say, “We know that God’s judgment on those who do such things is in accordance with truth.” 3 Do you imagine, whoever you are, that when you judge those who do such things and yet do them yourself, you will escape the judgment of God?

Q: Why is judging bad? Does this mean you should keep your trap shut about certain things, even if you’re sinned against yourself?

Luke 17:3 3 Be on your guard! If another disciple sins, you must rebuke the offender, and if there is repentance, you must forgive.

Q: Is recognizing sin the same thing as judging? What’s the difference? (subjectively, being told you’re sinning feels a lot like being judged, doesn’t it?)

Romans 14:4 4 Who are you to pass judgment on servants of another? It is before their own lord that they stand or fall. And they will be upheld, for the Lord is able to make them stand.

Q: What reason does this verse give for us to control our urge to judge? What if you had this attitude every time someone tried to rebuke you?

1 Corinthians 5:12-13 12 For what have I to do with judging those outside? Is it not those who are inside that you are to judge? 13 God will judge those outside. “Drive out the wicked person from among you.”

Q: Does this verse seem to contradict the above verses about not judging others? What is the context, what’s going on?

Romans 14:10-13 10 Why do you pass judgment on your brother or sister? Or you, why do you despise your brother or sister? For we will all stand before the judgment seat of God. 11 For it is written, “As I live, says the Lord, every knee shall bow to me, and every tongue shall give praise to God.” 12 So then, each of us will be accountable to God. 13 Let us therefore no longer pass judgment on one another, but resolve instead never to put a stumbling block or hindrance in the way of another.

Q: Does this verse contradict the above verse? Why not? What is “passing judgment” in this context? Is there a difference between passing judgment and rebuking?

1 Corinthians 6:1-4 When any of you has a grievance against another, do you dare to take it to court before the unrighteous, instead of taking it before the saints? 2 Do you not know that the saints will judge the world? And if the world is to be judged by you, are you incompetent to try trivial cases? 3 Do you not know that we are to judge angels— to say nothing of ordinary matters? 4 If you have ordinary cases, then, do you appoint as judges those who have no standing in the church?

Q: What does this passage say about judging?

1 Corinthians 4:3-5 3 But with me it is a very small thing that I should be judged by you or by any human court. I do not even judge myself. 4 I am not aware of anything against myself, but I am not thereby acquitted. It is the Lord who judges me. 5 Therefore do not pronounce judgment before the time, before the Lord comes, who will bring to light the things now hidden in darkness and will disclose the purposes of the heart. Then each one will receive commendation from God.


This isn’t the only place this is taught, but it is the only place I know of in the NT that this is taught explicitly. You can see some of this when Jesus says to judge a tree by it’s fruit; he’s telling us to judge our teachers (this happens again in Rev with one of the churches, and in Phil with “those who falsely call themselves apostles” I think…), and again where he tells us to confront those who sin against us. You can’t confront someone without making some form of judgment, which is how the misunderstanding of this verse goes. But telling someone they’ve sinned against you or others or God is far different from pronouncing sentence; you have done X, so I’m going to treat you in Y fashion. Then you have “judged” and given a sentence, which I really God’s domain. The worst thing I know of in this fashion (find the verse) is saying that someone is not a Christian because of their actions; this may in fact be true, but if it’s false, you risk being judged yourself “for doing the same things”.